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Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2

Shigeki Inui1*, Ayako Mori2, Masayuki Ito3, Sayuri Hyodo3 and Satoshi Itami1

* Correspondence: 1Department of Regenerative Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, G2, Yamadaoka, Suita -shi, Osaka 565-0871, Japan Full list of author information is available at the end of the article

© 2014 Inui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Abstract Background: Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings: Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) after an 8-week treatment. A self-administered questionnaire indicated that this reduction achieved cosmetically appreciable effects. In addition, to investigate the mechanism of effect of fullerene, we examined its effect on UVB-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in reconstructed human epidermis (RhE). The results showed that irradiation of RhE with 1000 mJ/cm2 increased PGE2 production by 62.3% (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and the addition of 28 μM fullerene significantly suppressed the UVB-induced PGE2 production by 18.3% (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Fullerene lotion significantly decreases conspicuous facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis. Keywords: Fullerene, Facial pore, Prostaglandin E2, Cosmeceutical, Melanin

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