Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2
Shigeki Inui1*, Ayako Mori2, Masayuki Ito3, Sayuri Hyodo3 and Satoshi Itami1
* Correspondence: email@example.com 1Department of Regenerative Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, G2, Yamadaoka, Suita -shi, Osaka 565-0871, Japan Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© 2014 Inui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Abstract Background: Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings: Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) after an 8-week treatment. A self-administered questionnaire indicated that this reduction achieved cosmetically appreciable effects. In addition, to investigate the mechanism of effect of fullerene, we examined its effect on UVB-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in reconstructed human epidermis (RhE). The results showed that irradiation of RhE with 1000 mJ/cm2 increased PGE2 production by 62.3% (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and the addition of 28 μM fullerene significantly suppressed the UVB-induced PGE2 production by 18.3% (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Fullerene lotion significantly decreases conspicuous facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis. Keywords: Fullerene, Facial pore, Prostaglandin E2, Cosmeceutical, Melanin